The Defend Trade Secrets Act & Startups

President Obama signed the Defend Trade Secrets Act (the “DTSA”) into law on May 11, 2016, and established the first federal cause of action for trade secret theft. The DTSA provides protection of trade secrets by enabling companies to bring suit in federal courts without needing diversity jurisdiction, as well as by providing a mechanism through which plaintiffs can retrieve stolen trade secrets. Startups often heavily employ trade secrets and other intellectual property, so they should take particular care to familiarize themselves with the provisions of the DTSA.


What the DTSA Does

To be clear, the DTSA does not substitute for or alter the trade secret laws already in place at the state level. It allows companies to bring trade secret suits in federal courts more easily than before, as diversity is no longer needed between the parties. This can become a bargaining chip for companies who want to resolve disputes more quickly with defendants who would prefer not to go to trial in federal court.

The DTSA also provides ex parte seizure of allegedly stolen trade secrets, where the company can retrieve the stolen property without any notice to the alleged trade secret thief. Because this is an extraordinary measure, the companies (the plaintiffs) must meet a high bar and show extraordinary circumstances for the court to grant ex parte seizure. This mechanism allows startups to quickly halt dissemination of trade secrets when an employee leaves for another company, and begins using the trade secrets she acquired from her original company at her new one. Startups are particularly susceptible to trade secret breaches, as employee turnover or poaching tends to be higher than in more established companies or industries. For instance, in Mission Capital Advisors LLC v. Romaka, the court ordered the seizure of contact lists and other electronically-stored information that was allegedly stolen by a former employee of the plaintiff company. The data-driven modern era enables employees to steal huge amounts of data with little effort, so the DTSA provides one welcome method with which to reign in trade secret theft.

The DTSA also provides whistleblowers with immunity when they disclose trade secrets to government or law officials, as long as they do so in relation to furthering an investigation or a lawsuit.


The Notice Requirement

The DTSA requires employers to include a notice of whistleblower immunity in all of its contracts with employees, contractors, or consultants if the contracts restrict the use or disclosure of trade secrets. As noted above, this provides protections to whistleblowers who reveal trade secrets to federal, state, or local government officials when the whistleblowers are assisting in investigations or lawsuits.

All startups that possess and deal with trade secrets should include these notices in their contracts with employees, in order to comply with the DTSA. It may also be helpful for startups to provide training for their employees regarding the companies’ trade secret policies, as well as on federal and state trade secret laws.


The DTSA Descriptions of Trade Secrets

One potential roadblock for plaintiffs in DTSA claims is the extent with which to identify the trade secret alleged to have been stolen. The court in Mission Measurement Corp. v. Blackbaud, Inc. articulates this issue, noting that trade secret allegations, if too detailed, may constitute an “unwitting disclosure of the trade secret to the public.” In its complaint, Mission Measurement described the allegedly stolen trade secret broadly as a software program, and identified it with dates of its use and agreements or meetings made in relation to it. The Defendants argued that the allegations lacked sufficient particularity and were thereby inadequate, because the complaint failed to identify with enough specificity the trade secrets at issue in the lawsuit. The court rejected this argument, and concluded that “such allegations were adequate in instances where the information and the efforts to maintain its confidentiality are described in general terms. The court in Aggreko, LLC v. Barreto clarifies this notion, ruling that allegations of trade secret theft must still describe the trade secrets to the extent the defense “would be put on notice as to the nature of the claim.”

When bringing DTSA claims, startups should therefore be mindful to maintain the confidentiality of their trade secrets by not revealing too much in their complaint, but to also plead with enough detail so defendants cannot reasonably argue that they cannot pinpoint the specific trade secrets that were allegedly stolen.


Trade Secret vs. Patent Protection for Software Startups

In light of recent changes in the law concerning software patents, software startups should more heavily consider trade secret protection to protect their technological and operational advantages.

In light of recent changes in the law concerning software patents, software startups should more heavily consider trade secret protection to protect their technological and operational advantages.

So you’ve launched a software startup. You know that if you are to have any hope of becoming the next Google, Facebook, or Twitter success story, you need to take steps to protect your technology and your brand. Making the choice to invest some resources into obtaining intellectual property protection can be a great decision, but the specifics of how to carry out such a plan might be a little elusive. The question is what kind of protection do you actually need, and how do you go about getting it.

Two types of IP protection that most startups will want to consider are patents and trade secrets. What works best will vary from startup to startup depending on each ones own unique circumstances. However, there are several factors that all startups will want to consider when implanting an intellectual property protection strategy. First, let’s consider the basic types of IP protection that the patents and trade secrets provide, and then we can better understand factors that might encourage you to choose one or the other.


One type of IP protection that most people have heard of but few people fully understand is patent protection. There are several categories of patents, including utility patents, design patents, and plant patents. Plant patents and design patents give inventors rights in specific areas as defined by statute. However, the most common type of patent is the utility patent.

Utility patents grant the holder an exclusive monopoly on inventions of “new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or a new and useful improvement thereof.” For example, someone could obtain a patent on a new and improved hair trimmer as long as it was different than and not obvious in light of previous hair trimmers. Last year, over 500,000 utility patent applications were filed at the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office.

Patents, utility patents in particular, enjoy popularity for several reasons. First, they grant the rights holders a very strong form of protection. This protection – the right to prevent others from making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the patent holder’s invention – is given in exchange for a publication that explains how to make and use the invention. After twenty years anyone is allowed to make and use the invention. When considering whether or not to apply for a patent, a software startup should evaluate whether or not the exclusive protection is worth having in exchange for giving up their invention after twenty years. In many instances, this will be a good tradeoff to make given the rapidly evolving world of software and technology.

Another benefit of utility patents is that the patent holders will not lose their rights due to the actions of third parties, assuming that they justly received the patent in the first place. This may not necessarily be true with trade secret protection. For example, a person who has trade secret protection in a manufacturing process can not prevent a third party from independently discovering and using such a manufacturing process. But if the original inventor of that manufacturing process acquired a patent, the third party could not use the process even if they independently discovered it (assuming that the patent holder had a valid patent that was not acquired through fraud).

While there are some significant upsides to obtaining a patent, there are costs as well. One downside that was already mentioned is the limited duration of patents. Another potential downside is the cost and difficulty of obtaining a patent. As discussed in our recent post, in recent years, it has become more and more difficult for inventors to obtain patents on software, and the scope of granted software patents may be more limited. Getting a patent can also be quite expensive. Depending on how many jurisdictions (i.e., countries) your startup is applying for patents in, the price tag can reach into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. See our prior post outlining the costs of obtaining patent protection.

Trade Secrets

Unlike patents, trade secrets are creatures of state law rather than federal law. This means that specific trade secret regimes will vary some from state to state; however, there are generally accepted principles regarding how trade secret law should work. One attempt to compile some of these generally accepted principles is the Uniform Trade Secrets Act. This document defines trade secrets as follows: “’Trade secret’ means information, including a formula, pattern, compilation, program, device, method, technique, or process, that: (i) derives independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to, and not being readily ascertainable by proper means by, other persons who can obtain economic value from its disclosure or use, and (ii) is the subject of efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to maintain its secrecy.” In short, a trade secret is information that is valuable because it is kept secret. State laws prevent the “misappropriation” of trade secrets. This basically means that people aren’t allowed to steal your secret sauce. They can, however, independently create or reverse engineer it. This is one of the main disadvantages to trade secrets.

There are several benefits to weigh this disadvantage against when considering whether or not to rely upon trade secrets as your chosen form of IP protection. One benefit is that trade secrets can be relatively cheap compared to patents. There are no government filing fees for trade secrets, and the main costs result from taking measures to make sure your secret information remains secret. Trade secrets also can last forever assuming the information remains secret. This can be advantageous if you believe your invention will have commercial value for a long time to come.

Choosing Trade Secrets or Patents

One form of protection or the other will not be right for every startup. The following are some factors to consider when choosing between the two: (1) Will the invention be useful beyond 20 years? (2) Is it possible for companies to reverse engineer the invention? (3) Is the invention likely to be discovered independently in the near future? (4) Can you afford more expensive patent protection given your goals? (5) What is the risk that competitors design around a patent? (6) Are you interested in licensing/cross-licensing with competitors? (7) Would you be able to detect if someone was infringing your patent?

Let’s look at a couple of examples in order to understand how these factors can play out.

Example 1:

A software startup has developed a technology that has never been seen before, but as soon as you sell it, everyone will understand how to make it. They believe that this technology will be relevant for 5-10 years, but are not sure beyond that. Finally, the startup thinks there a lot of potential competitors who will likely be interested using this technology.

In this example, the startup would likely want to obtain a patent because all the factors lean in that direction. It will be easy for other competitors to develop similar products once they see the startup’s new technology; this will greatly reduce if not eliminate the value of any trade secret protection. The indefinite duration of trade secrets wouldn’t really be that valuable even if competitors couldn’t reverse engineer the product. The technology will only be relevant for 5-10 years, well less than the time frame protected by patents. Finally, because there are a lot of potential competitors that might be interested in using the technology, the startup could potentially operate on licensing business model to obtain revenue or cross-licenses.

Example 2:

A software startup has made a discovery that they believe is so foundational in nature that they believe it will revolutionize the industry for many years to come. They’re a little low on cash right now, but they expect that to turn around in the next year or two. Finally, the discovery should improve the ease with which current products are made, but the final products themselves won’t necessarily be changed.

In this example, the startup will likely choose to rely on trade secret protection. Given the foundational nature of the discovery (think F=MA2 rather than a bulldozer applying the principal of F=MA2), it is not even clear that the discovery would be patentable.  Further, the startup does not have a lot of money to try and convince the USPTO that the discovery is in fact patentable. Finally, it looks like the manufacturing processes for widgets will change, but this will not be detectable in the final widgets themselves. Thus, it might be very difficult to tell if a competitor was infringing a patent. Relying on trade secret protection will mitigate these concerns and allow the startup to profit for the discovery for many years to come.

It is important to note however, that deciding between a patent and trade secret does not necessarily have to be an either or proposition. It might be possible to go the trade secret route at first, and then obtain a patent further down the road. However, this is a one way street. Once you obtain a patent, you can never go back and rely on trade secret protection. Also, you can split up various aspects of your business. Certain aspects of the business might be appropriately covered by patents while other aspects would be great candidates for trade secret protection.


Startups creating an IP protection strategy should make decisions in light of their business model and technology. If it is not a clear decision to go one way or the other, the startup will need to make a calculated decision as to what factors are more important to them. Finally, when appropriate, startups should consider using patents and trade secrets in a hybrid form of protection.


Trade Secrets: An Inexpensive Alternative to Patent Protection


Trade Secret Pic

There are several ways in which start-up companies may protect their intellectual property, including patents, trademarks, copyright, and trade secrets.  Trade secret protection may be particularly attractive to start up companies given the longevity of trade secret protection and the relative ease in which protection can be afforded.

A trade secret can be anything of value to your company that is unique and not known to persons outside your company.  Common examples include processes, practices, formulas, or information that gives your business a competitive advantage.  While patents can confer similar protection as trade secrets, they oftentimes come with a large price tag, whereas trade secrets can be inexpensive to acquire.  Another advantage offered by trade secrets is that they can be immediately effective, whereas patent prosecution may take several years to secure legally enforceable rights. One final advantage of trade secrets is their longevity. Patent protection expires after a limited amount of time, whereas trade secret protection can go on indefinitely.  For example, had COCA-COLA obtained patent protection on its formulation for COKE, chances are that patent would have expired by now, and the information would be freely available to competitors.  Instead, COCA-COLA protects this information as a trade secret and thus competitors are still unable to access the formulation.

Here are some tips as to how to go about protecting your trade secret.

1.  Identify Your Trade Secrets. Trade secrets are only valuable so long as they are kept secret.  The first step in protecting your trade secrets is to identify them. When trying to identify your trade secrets, you should ask yourself “is this information that would allow competitors to gain a business advantage if it became public?” If the answer is yes, this information is likely to be a trade secret.  You need to make sure that everyone involved in your company is aware of which information you consider to be a trade secret and require them to keep this information confidential.

2.  Keep Trade Secrets Secret.  When interacting with third parties, be sure not to disclose your trade secrets unless appropriate protective measures are in place.  If it becomes necessary to share your trade secrets at some point in time with others, for example, make sure that appropriate confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements are in place. Similarly, remind your employees not to discuss trade secrets outside of work, especially not on online social media forums!

3.  Restrict Access.  If you are ever trying to prove misappropriation of trade secrets by your competitor in court one day, to be successful you will need to show that you took reasonable precautions in protecting your trade secrets.  Locking files containing trade secret information in filing cabinets with limited access may be sufficient.  Other good practices involve the use of passwords on computers containing valuable information and insisting that employees not remove work documents from the workplace.  If you no longer need to keep certain documents that contain trade secret information you should have a policy in place requiring these documents are destroyed to avoid the inadvertent disclosure of your trade secrets.

4.  Have Exit Interviews.  When an employee leaves your business to pursue other goals or another job, it is important that you meet with them prior to their departure to remind them of their commitment to you to refrain from disclosing your trade secrets.  It is good practice at this point in time to remind them what you consider to be a trade secret, and assuming the appropriate contracts are in place, the potential liability they may face in the event they disclose this information.  You may also want to ensure that they are not leaving with documents or electronic materials that contain trade secret information.

5.  Diligently Follow Your Trade Secret Policy.  A trade secret is only legally protectable when you diligently follow the guidelines you have established for protecting your secret.   While having a written policy regarding trade secrets in the employee handbook is a step in the right direction, it will be insufficient in proving misappropriation if your company does not practice what it preaches.  Companies should remind their employees of their policies on a regular basis, and continue to update and inform employees of what they consider to be trade secrets.  A good way to put employees on notice that information they are viewing is considered a trade secret is to mark documents as CONFIDENTIAL or as containing CONFIDENTIAL TRADE SECRET INFORMATION. If you don’t protect your trade secrets, neither will the courts!

Trade secrets can be a robust, yet inexpensive way in which companies can protect the processes, practices, formulas and other proprietary information that gives them a competitive advantage in the marketplace.  However, the law will not protect trade secrets unless the company itself takes reasonable measures to protect its trade secrets.  Good practices for companies include establishing trade secret policies for employees and enforcing the policies diligently.