Provisional Patent Applications Provide Lasting Intellectual Property Protection
A provisional utility patent application, as opposed to a non-provisional utility patent application, is not reviewed by a patent examiner at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), and therefore will not directly lead to the grant of a patent. So, why do we care?
Often entrepreneurs launch their startups with a concept or a prototype of an innovative product. Their business goal is to commercialize the invention. Before the product is ready to be introduced to consumers or an interested acquirer, it has to go through a stage of commercial viability testing or technical improvements. During this period of time, startups face the dilemma of how to protect their intellectual property (IP) assets with limited capital and human resources. The decision whether to file a costly non-provisional patent application is complicated by uncertainty about the patentability of the invention, a patent’s added value to the startup and the commercial prospect of the product. Under this scenario, a provisional patent application is a sensible alternative providing benefits that a non-provisional patent application may or may not have.
Currently the US adopts a first-inventor-to-file system in regard to right to patent. Without patent protection, an invention is subject to the risk of being copied or claimed by another party. Available to utility and plant patents but not design patents, a provisional patent application can be used to establish the priority date of an invention, the same as a non-provisional patent application. The priority date is the earliest filing date of a patent application and used to determine the right of priority over an invention through prior art search and obviousness examination. If a non-provisional patent application is filed within one year after the filing of a provisional patent application, the non-provisional patent application can claim the benefit of the priority of the provisional patent application filing date. Startups may use the one-year grace period to research the market potential for or make further improvements to their product. In addition, startups may file multiple provisional patent applications and claim the priority dates of all of them in a single non-provisional patent application.
One requirement for the priority date claim is that the later filed non-provisional patent application must be adequately supported by the description in the provisional patent application. Also, a provisional patent application cannot claim the benefit of the priority date of another provisional or non-provisional patent application. On the other hand, the patent term of a utility or plant patent is based on the earliest filing date of a non-provisional patent application.
Patent Pending Status
The filing of a provisional patent application will allow startups to use the status label “patent pending” to describe their product, the same as a non-provisional patent application. The “patent pending” status not only will afford IP protection to the invention, but also may carry advantages in various business undertakings such as marketing, venture capital financing, valuation of the company, and deterrence of potential competitors.
The cost of filing a provisional patent application is much lower than that of a non-provisional patent application for several reasons. First, since a provisional patent application is not examined, it will not incur USPTO fees in prior art search, patent examination and communications. The basic filing fee is low. For example, the electronic filing fee of a provisional utility patent application for a small entity, such as a business organization with fewer than 500 employees, is only $70.
Secondly, the examination process of a non-provisional patent application usually entails back-and-forth communications between the USPTO and attorneys that could drag on for a couple of years and result in significant attorney fees. In total, the process of obtaining a patent may cost up in the tens of thousands of dollars. Finally, entrepreneurs will have to spend time and energy working with attorneys throughout the patent examination process. All of this may strain the capital and human resources of an early stage startup.
Scope of Disclosure
Different from a non-provisional patent application, a provisional patent application does not have to include any claims, which makes it simpler to write and easier to avoid the problem of narrow characterization. A claim defines the scope of protection and therefore tends to limit patent right to an invention. If the claims are written in overly narrow terms, competitors may be able to design around a patent making it unenforceable. Therefore, it is generally recommended to use broadening statements and alternative languages in patent application drafting.
A recent ruling, The Regents of the University of California (“UC”) vs. The Broad Institute (“Broad”), from the Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) of the USPTO illuminates the importance of the scope of disclosure in patent applications to an inventor’s right to patent. This dispute involves a genome-editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9. The CRISPR-Cas9 system, similar to a cut and paste tool in a word processor, may be employed to modify the genome of an organism by permanently deleting dysfunctional genes or inserting beneficial ones, thus holding enormous potential for applications such as developing therapeutics for intractable human diseases or pest-resistant plants.
In this case, UC’s non-provisional patent application, which was filed earlier than Broad’s and based on four provisional applications, described the CRISPR-Cas9 system in prokaryotes−single-cell organisms without cellular nucleus, such as bacterium, while Broad’s patents demonstrated CRISPR-Cas9 in eukaryotes−multicellular organisms such as humans, animals and plants. PTAB declared that the two parties claimed distinct subject matter in their disclosures. Given CRISPR-Cas9’s potential in changing the landscape of biomedical innovation and both parties of this dispute have established startups to commercialize the technology, the PTAB ruling was widely considered a huge win for Broad.